The Quest to Tell Science from Pseudoscience

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Philosopher Karl Popper famously asked how to tell the two apart. His answer—falsifiability—hasn’t aged well, but the effort lives on.

Where do you place the boundary between “science” and “pseudoscience”? The question is more than academic. The answers we give have consequences—in part because, as health policy scholar Timothy Caulfield wrote in Nature last April during the first wave of COVID-19, “tolerating pseudoscience can cause real harm.” We want to know which doctrines count as bona fide science (with all the resulting prestige that carries) and which are imposters.

The demarcation problem is no less central today than it was when Popper broached it. But the solution is not at all obvious.

This is the “demarcation problem,” as the Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper famously called it. The solution is not at all obvious. You cannot just rely on those parts of science that are correct, since science is

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The games go on, but pandemic put a big dent in high school athletic budgets | Education

Some concession money is used for professional development for coaches, Toczek said, and at Southeast pays for “Knight Night,” an event for students attending feeder middle schools.

Lincoln East vs. Lincoln Southeast, 9.24 (copy)

In a normal year, the stands at Seacrest Field would have been filled with fans for a game between Lincoln Southeast and Lincoln East. The coronavirus not only cut into ticket sales but also concessions revenue used to help fund the schools’ athletic teams.

Full sets of team uniforms are purchased using district funds on a rotating basis, he said, and luckily Southeast didn’t need to purchase any this year.

Coaches understand the situation and have not been asking for anything other than essentials, the ADs said.

Concession money can buy things teams need for regular use, but also is used to help pay for bigger projects. At Northeast, Uher said they want to upgrade some of

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